Icings also called frostings are sweet coatings for cakes and other baked goods.
Icings have the following functions-
·        They contribute the flavor and richness.
·        Improve appearance.
·        Improve keeping qualities by forming protective coatings around cake.

Always use top quality ingredients for icing. The flavours should be light and delicate.


a.      FONDANT: it is sugar syrup that is crystallized to a smooth creamy white mass when applied it sets up into shiny, non sticky coating. On preparation, when excess of glucose or cream of tartare is added, not enough crystallization will take place, hence the fondant will be too soft and syrupy.
b.     BUTTER CREAMS: are light smooth mixtures of fat and sugar. They may also contain eggs to increase their smoothness or lightness. It can be esily flavoured and coloured. The following are the variations
·        SIMPLE BUTTER – It is made by creaming together fat and confectioners’ sugar to the desired consistency and lightness.
·        MERINGUE TYPE – This is a mixture of butter and meringue. Use butter creams only in cool weather. Blend a small quantity of emulsifier shortening with the butter to stabilize it. They may be stored, covered in the refrigerator for several days.
c.     FOAM TYPE ICING: sometimes are also called boiled icings are simply meringues made with boiling syrup. Some also contains gelatin. Foam icing should be applied thickly to cakes and left in peaks and swirls. These icings are not stable. They should be used the day they are produced. Eg. Marshmallow icing and American frosting.
d.     FUDGE TYPE ICING: are rich, heavy icings like candy. They may be flavoured with a variety of ingredients and are used on cup cakes, layer cakes, loaf cakes and sheet cakes. Fudge icings are stable and hold up well on cakes and in storage. Stored icings must be covered tightly to prevent drying and crusting. Eg. Vanilla Fudge icing. A soft rich candy made from sugar, milk, butter and flavor.
e.      FLAT ICING: are also called water icing are simply mixtures of icing sugar and water. They are mostly used for coffee cakes, Danish pastry and sweet rolls. Flat icings are warmed to 38°C for application and are handled like fondant.
f.     ROYAL ICING: This is also called decorating or decorator icings, is similar to flat icing, except that it is much thicker is made with egg white, which makes it hard and brittle when dry. It is used exclusively for the decoration work. Like ginger bread & Christmas cookies.

PREPARATION: Place desired amount of icing sugar in a mixing bowl. Beat in egg white a little at a time until the sugar forms a smooth paste. Keep unused icing covered with a damp cloth at all times to prevent hardening.
It is made of almond paste and powdered sugar with addition of moistening agents such as glucose or corn syrup. Some recipes substitute egg whites or even fondants. Marzipan must be made in a stainless steel bowl to prevent discoloration. Due to its large sugar content 60% to 70%, marzipan dries very quickly when exposed to air and should be kept covered at all times. If marzipan becomes dry, it can be reconstituted by kneading in a small amount of water, but will shorten its shelf life. Marzipan is rolled out in the same manner as short dough but powder sugar is used instead of flour to prevent the paste from sticking. It can be left smooth or textured in various patterns before being used to cover cakes, petit fours and pastries. Marzipan will keep almost indefinitely if proper care in the mixing and handling. It should be placed in air-tight containers and stored in a very cool place or the refrigerator. It can be stored in the freezer. If the oil separates from the marzipan after it has thawed, making it crumbly and hard to work with, add a small amount of water and some powdered sugar. Continue to knead the marzipan until it is smooth & elastic.
Almond paste 900g
120ml glucose or light corn syrup
900gms powdered sugar
                               I.            In a stainless steel bowl, mix the almond paste with the glucose at low speed, until combined.
                            II.            Start adding the sugar, scraping the sides of the bowl down. Add enough of the powdered sugar to make a firmly, yet workable dough.
                         III.            Store the marzipan, wrapped in plastic, inside an airtight container in a cold place.

NOTE: Never over mix. The friction will make the marzipan warm, softening it, thus too much sugar will be added.

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